You could try connecting an external monitor with whatever graphics port you have available (VGA, HDMI or DVI.) It may not show your screen automatically, but it's worth a shot. Otherwise, take it to a computer shop and have a nerd try and save your hard drive data.
You must be old enough to remember the old way of setting up screens. That was when they were CRT's (Cathode Ray Tube).
The large picture tube used to use Deflection Coils on the neck of the picture tube (magnetic coils) therefore requiring adjustments to the alignment of the screen (by adjusting magnetic signal from coils) Hard to Explain any further..... Cathode ray tube
So.... Modern devices that use LCD or LED or Plasma Displays.
These are all modern Digital devices that do not have any adjustments to be made. Basically it is all coming directly from the Video Memory to the pixels in the screen.
All computer controlled......Ones & Zeroe's 1 - 0
So..... where is the problem?
Probably a loose or broken cable between the video memory and the display. Usually carried over a thin flexible flat copper connector which goes between the gap between the computer and the moveable screen.
When you open your laptop screen & close it... it can eventually crack this cable & therefore some screen dots (pixels) are missing.
try moving the arrow over towards the edge slowly and see if it changes from a pointer to a double ended arrow
if it does the right click and hold down and move the column border right or left to get a change of column size.
do that for all borders